Slavic words for ‘foot’, ‘sole’ and ‘footprint’ in the lightof dialectal material and historical sources
The subject of analysis are the Slavic words for ‘foot’, ‘sole’ and ‘footprint’. Similar mapping and parallel presentation of the material from the General Slavic Linguistic Atlas and other dialectal materials and historical sources allowed for identifying detailed similarities and differences in the names of the three discussed designata. The analysis of the material revealed that there are numerous shared names for ‘foot’ and ‘sole’ (the bottom surface of the foot) and this is the result of mixing up the names for the whole (‘foot’) and its part (‘sole’). The same lexemes carrying those meanings often have various geographical ranges. It also happens that in the same place one word is used in both meanings. There are considerable differences in details and this is what the maps with the accompanying commentaries show. It is also obvious that the original names for ‘foot’ and ‘sole’ are transferred and used as names for ‘footprint’. The word stopa [foot] has avery wide range and is used to designate both ‘the lower part of aleg’ and ‘a mark left by ahuman or animal foot’ (especially in Polish). It is also possible to notice the opposite influence: the original names for ‘footprint’ (e.g. *slědъ) may have the meaning of ‘foot’ and ‘sole’. The names with transferred meanings usually have a limited range. It happens that in agiven location one and the same word appears in all three meanings. Of the discussed designates ‘footprint’ is the one that relatively most often has separate names. Many of the analysed names raise various interpretative problems, especially when it comes to distinguishing various derivatives of the root *step-/*stop- and the secondary *stǫp- which comes from ‘stepping’. Here is where some modifications to the earlier description in the General Slavic Linguistic Atlas (OLA, map 46) have been introduced by the author.