Lexical nomination and social structure
The author presents an overview of some linguistic trends and disciplines which in the 20th century contributed to the systematic study of the effects of social, cultural and communication environment on language system and linguistic activity. The author pays particular attention to the contribution of Russian scientists, such as V.N. Voloshinov, A.F. Losev, V.A. Zvegincev and others. The four parameters of the semantic system of language are examined, which show the influence of pragmatic factors on the formation and functioning of the meaning oflanguage units: the internal form of words, connotation, secondary nomination (metaphor, metonymy), the structure of semantic fields. In addition, the author demonstrates three principles of the nomination in the language behavior: the principle of the nearest relations, the principle of empathy and the principle of differentiation.