Criteria for the opposition betweenhomonymic particles and adverbs
Adverbs and particles are mutually exclusive. The units of the first class are subordinated only to verbs, whereas the units of the second one do not enter into syntactic dependencies in the strict sense of the word. Particles co-occur with grammatically unmarked expressions and make comments to rheme. Adverbs as apart of speech are neutral as for their functions in TRS. The paper shows four semantic-syntactic criteria for differentiation between adverbs and particles. All criteria are formulated as yes-no questions. Neither the notion of adverb nor particle is included in their content. On the grounds of affirmative answer one can classify agiven unit only to one grammatical class. Negative answer permits to classify homonymic unit to the opposing class.