The notion of space in Lermontov’s poem From Goethe
Lermontov’s free translation of a poem written by Goethe, the external support for figurative sense of structure is different in its semantic content. Maintaining the completeness of a landscape, Lermontov appeals to the super-physical, perfect condition. An individual has a deep need for the rejection of the fundamental principles of life. The Russian poet changes the subject-object relations in his translation. The material and spiritual world appear in it in a different non-pantheistic way, the text turns towards a typical romantic tradition. Lermontov offers a romantic type of contrasts of the near and far objects, deprives the text of contours giving it free linearity. The distance is endowed with a romantic mediator function. The juxtaposition of the mountain tops and the valleys forms the basis of the works of Lermontov. German expectation of a “standstill” in the Russian text is removed. Lermontov divides the text into two parts. In the second the nature is directly connected with the enlightenment of the soul. In contrast to Goethe’s multidivision, Lermontov recreates the antithesis of the peaks and valleys in the first part and opens a possible correspondence between lyrical impulses in the natural environment in the second . Lermontov’s text cannot be understood without reference to unrestricted romantic impulses and unattainable ideals in contrast to the pantheistic reconciliation with the imperfection of human in Goethe’s conception. From the poem From Goethe there is a direct path to the Vyhozhu odin ja na dorogu… which reveals the causes of the tragedy of human condition in the world. Even in a state of fatal languor the protagonist’s feelings do not seek peace and pantheistic nirvana. Since the text Vyhozhu odin ja na dorogu… is a result of Lermontov’s romantic pursuit, without his image system Goethe’s masterpiece cannot be understood. The motif of loneliness, which is central to Lermontov’s creativity, finds in it the height of the tragedy. As in the poem From Goethe the lyrical situation of a secluded rendezvous with nature cannot be imbued with pantheistic sentiments for Goethe. Perfect peace is unattainable in Lermontov’s poetic world as it is always associated with freedom. If a metaphysically imperturbable calm (Ruh) for Goethe is a universal constant of the poetic life, then the key formula of Lermontov is “I’m looking for freedom and peace!”.